Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that affects an individual’s perception, behavior, and thinking. The condition is characterized by a combination of positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms. Positive symptoms refer to experiences that are added to an individual’s normal experiences, such as hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking. In contrast, negative symptoms involve the loss of normal experiences, such as reduced motivation, a lack of emotions, and difficulties in speech.

While the exact cause of schizophrenia remains unclear, research has identified several factors that can increase an individual’s risk of developing the disorder. These factors can be broadly classified into genetic, environmental, neurobiological, and psychosocial factors.

Is it Affected by Genetics?

Genetic factors are considered to be one of the leading causes of schizophrenia. Studies have shown that there is a strong genetic component to the disorder, with individuals who have a first-degree relative with schizophrenia being ten times more likely to develop the condition than the general population.

Research has identified several genes that are associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, with the most significant being the COMT and DISC1 genes.

Can a Person’s Environment be the Cause?

Environmental factors, including prenatal exposure to viruses, obstetric complications, and cannabis use, have also been linked to an increased risk of schizophrenia. Prenatal exposure to viruses, such as influenza, has been shown to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia later in life. Obstetric complications, such as a lack of oxygen during birth, have also been linked to an increased risk of the disorder. Cannabis use during adolescence has been associated with an increased risk of developing schizophrenia in later life.

Neurobiological Elements that could Affect Schizophrenia

Neurobiological factors, including dopamine and glutamate dysfunction, have also been linked to schizophrenia. The dopamine hypothesis suggests that an overactive dopamine system is responsible for the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations and delusions. Glutamate dysfunction, on the other hand, has been linked to cognitive symptoms, including difficulties in memory and executive function.

Could it be a Past Event?

Psychosocial factors, such as stressful life events and urban upbringing, have also been associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. Stressful life events, such as trauma or abuse, can trigger the onset of the disorder in susceptible individuals. Urban upbringing has also been linked to an increased risk of schizophrenia, with research suggesting that the stress of living in a densely populated area may contribute to the development of the condition.